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Functional and tableting properties of alkali-isolated and phosphorylated Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa esculenta) starch

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The functional and tableting characteristics of barnyard millet starch (Echinochloa esculenta) were examined in its native (alkali-treated) and chemically modified (phosphorylated) forms. The grains underwent pulverization, soaking, and grinding before separation of starch and protein through filtration. Multiple NaOH treatments were applied, followed by washing, neutralization, and drying of the starch. Chemical modification using sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and sodium sulfate was performed, and the starch underwent maceration, washing, and drying to eliminate unreacted chemicals. The amylose content of alkali-treated barnyard millet starch increased by 19.96 ± 3.56% w/w. The protein content, type of starch, and starch granule size influenced the swelling capacity of the starch granules. Alkali-extracted barnyard millet starch (AZS) exhibited a swelling power of 194.3 ± 0.0064% w/w, while the treated starch showed reduced swelling compared to native alkali barnyard millet starch. Phosphorylated starch exhibited a decreased swelling power due to enhanced molecular structure bonding. The moisture content of AZS was found to be 15.336 ± 1.012% w/w, while cross-linked barnyard millet starch had a moisture content up to 20% lower than AZS. The Hausner ratio for phosphorylated starch indicated notable flow properties. Similar morphologies were observed in alkali-isolated barnyard millet starch and cross-linked/phosphorylated barnyard millet starch. The scanning electron microscopic study suggested that the modest degree of substitution had no significant impact on surface morphology. Modified barnyard millet starch demonstrated improved crushing and compacting abilities, but exhibited decreased friability and disintegration rate. Overall, the study revealed that cross-linked barnyard millet had favorable tableting properties and could be utilized as an excipient in drug delivery.
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Functional and Tableting Properties of Alkali-Isolated and Phosphorylated Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa esculenta) Starch

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