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Melt granulation: A comparison of granules produced via high-shear mixing and twin-screw granulation

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Melt granules containing DI-CAFOS® A12 and 15% (w/w) Kolliphor® P407 were produced using a twin-screw granulator (TSG) under five different conditions (varied screw speed and throughput). These were then compared with granules manufactured in a high-shear granulator (HSG), where variations included the rotation speed of the chopper/impeller and granulation time. The evaluated characteristics of the granules included process yield, particle-size distribution (PSD), particle morphology, flowability, porosity, specific surface area (SSA), tabletability, compressibility, and binder distribution. In comparison to TSG, HSG-produced granules exhibited a more spherical shape, lower porosity, smaller mean particle size, and superior flowability. Conversely, TSG granules displayed a more elongated structure, higher porosity, larger mean particle size, and a smaller SSA. Regarding the compression process, tablets made from TSG granules showed higher tabletability compared to HSG granules, while compressibility remained similar. For TSG granules, energy-dispersive-X-ray (EDX) measurements on the tablet surface indicated an enhanced and homogeneous binder distribution. Furthermore, EDX analyses revealed that more binder was present between individual particles, resulting in stronger bonding.
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