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Influence of spray nozzle aperture during high shear wet granulation on granule properties and its compression attributes

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The distribution of granulating liquid is acknowledged to influence the high shear wet granulation process, but the impact of spray nozzle attributes remains unclear. While a spray nozzle can achieve homogeneous liquid distribution, the influence of different nozzle aperture sizes on granule properties is not well-explored. In this study, nozzles with various aperture sizes were employed to introduce granulating liquid in high shear wet granulation under different process parameters. A design of experiment approach was used to evaluate the impact of process parameters on granule properties. Granules produced with different spray nozzles were assessed for inhomogeneity in binder distribution, size, shape, flowability, and compression attributes like tabletability and yield pressure. The use of a smaller aperture size nozzle resulted in coarser granules with improved flow properties. Conversely, granules exhibited enhanced tabletability and lower yield pressure when a larger aperture size nozzle was employed. Moreover, the size of granules produced with the larger aperture size nozzle was more influenced by changes in process variables, potentially due to differences in granulating liquid feed rate and spray droplet size. While the aspect ratios of granules were comparable across nozzle aperture sizes, granules produced with a smaller aperture size nozzle appeared to be rounder. Regardless of the nozzle aperture sizes, homogenous binder distribution was consistently achieved. The insights gained from this study could serve as a valuable guide for selecting the appropriate nozzle aperture size in wet granulation processes.
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